25 Nov Teaching strategy 4.0 in the theaching of hand raised drawing in Graphic Expression
TEACHING STRATEGY 4 .0 IN THE TEACHING OF HAND RAISED DRAWING IN GRAPHIC EXPRESSION.
The case of the Universitat de les Illes Balears and its application in other centers and related materials to Graphic Expression. Education 4.0
Ph Dr Antonio FERNÁNDEZ-COCA
Universitat de les Illes Balears
Knowledge Area in Architectural Graphic Expression
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
> Pdf version (Spanish / English)
Aceptep paper. XI Graphic Expresion Applied to Building International Conference (APEGA 2012)
If we understand traditional teaching as 1.0, the use of participatory networks found in web 2.0 tools and the combination of both by using digital content available in Internet as 3.0, we could create the concept of TEACHING 4.0 if we put all together and produce the material by ourselves both in traditional media, off line, as well as material produced using the information and communication technologies (ICT), online.
This paper describes the case study we are developing and using at the Universitat de les Illes Balears, where this teacher combines F2F teaching, following the traditional parameters, with external support from web tools, such as video and social networks to produce specific content to support teaching in an open way and sharing it with you all.
This paper will show how, if you wish so, you can also do it by yourself.
The teaching of drawing in Graphic Expression is a core subject in the Universitat de les Illes Balears (UIB). It is taught in the second semester of the first year in the in Building Engineering Studies.
Since the course 2009-2010, these Studies have its curricula adapted to the European Higher Education Area (Bologna Process). Since that course 2009-2010, the author of this paper is in charge of this subject, first with one group only and from the course 2011-12 with the two groups we have in the UIB, changing the system and methodology previously used.
According to surveys conducted by myself as a teacher, in the last two years at the beginning of the semester, the second one, where I am teaching, 90% of the students of my classroom, start the course without any base of hand raised drawing, out of this 90%, the 80% of them, admit to be afraid of drawing and the 85% think that it will be very difficult or impossible to learn to draw as it is asked to pass the course. 35% of the total students came with some knowledge of technical drawing and the 96% is a user of web 2.0, though in this latter percentage, only 10% recognize and demonstrate the ability to make schemes and connections between what they read and what they are studying, which shows a lack of ability to interconnect ideas.
In this paper we explain how the strategic process of teaching 4.0 is able to, from the teacher’s daily work by promoting F2F work and non-F2F work, motivate the students in order to achieve the reverse of the percentage of the figures mentioned above at the end of the last two years, except in the use of web 2.0 tools, which the students employ as tools to support their learning process of hand raised drawing.
The strategy 4.0 applied to teaching Graphic Expression seeks to achieve:
Prepare professional and academic communications, adapted to the Bologna Process, aimed to young people, not use to retain the message (Boschuma, 2007 p. 191).
Establish a motivational tool to help students to achieve their learning process of hand raised drawing in Graphic Expression getting the best score
Use language in both directions, where participation is a teaching tool rather than causing the professional maturation of students, while an element taught to relate concepts, materials and ends that have throughout their studies.
Cause learning freehand drawing according to the norms own architectural language students who start with a low base and with which we share only 60 contact hours and 90 freelance work from them.
As a teacher I understand the teaching 4.0 as the union of traditional teaching tools with those that choose the tools web 2.0 as an extra support, without forgetting the system of personal tutorials and a constant improvement of the teaching methods employed, by consulting periodically through the surveys carried out every year to the students throughout the course.
The average age of UIB students in the last three years is 20 years. These are young people who move among young people, who use a language and contemporary communication tools which are from the very beginning recognized in the surveys that I do when starting the course so the context where they get the course material is completely familiar to them.
As teachers, specialist and professionals in the knowledge field, communicators of information we have to be able to adapt and be able to join traditional methods, where the theory is well explained and reasoned exercises and references to other authors can be enhanced with the use, always as support and non-replacement of our work in person, web 2.0 technologies normally employed by our students.
As web 2.0 tools, we understand the use of participatory websites, video channels, communication tools as well as social networks like Twitter or Facebook. These tools are included in the ICT, information technology and communication.
1. Strategic process
To establish a result that can allow the development of the teaching 4.0 I explain in this paper the strategy followed. I do it openly since I want to allow other teachers, to adapt their own materials and learning needs.
1.A SWOT analysis of the baseline
Based on a methodology to study the situation of a company or project, I have adapted it to my teaching project; I analyzed the internal characteristics (strengths and weaknesses) we face in the teaching process to students and also I took into account their external situations (threats and opportunities).
A summary of the highlights of this analysis can be seen in the following table:
|Internal analysis||Learning ability.
Eagerness to learn
|Fear of teamwork.
Fear of freehand drawing.
Scarce resources and capacity to relate subjects.
Ignorance about how to study graphic expression in an efficient manner.
Ignorance of how to take notes and practically reference to other knowledge of the degree.
|External analysis||Knowledge of Web 2.0.
Using two-way communication (participatory, although the individual level).
|Risk of dispersal in learning.
Risk of non-acceptance of proposed strategic system.
Table 1. Summary of the SWOT analysis of the students’ starting point. Source: the author.
|Internal analysis||Capacidad de aprendizaje.
Conocimiento de la web 2.0.
20 años de experiencia docente.
Experiencia en comunicación y marketing.
|Posibilidad de agotamiento.
|External analysis||Bologna Process.
Dynamism in teaching.
Table 2. Summary of the SWOT analysis of the teacher’s starting point. Source: the author.
1.2 Analysis of problems and solutions applied
Based on the experience acquired in the last three years, plus the information obtained in the surveys passed to the students, I noticed the following circumstances, solutions and adaptations to a teaching strategy 4.0:
|Student circumstances||Solution||Strategy 4.0|
|They do not give special value to the subject of drawing as an important core subject within the degree.||Generate a visual library that allows them to know why and what is drawing in Graphic Expression for.||I have a profile on the social network Pinterest where you can comment and reference visual works of other people. They also incorporated some of the videos I make specifically for this subject. These are all discussed in the classroom and in mentoring sessions.
I also edit videos based on real experiences of professionals involved in the subject they are active in.
|Lack of knowledge of the subject matter as well as of the existence of the architectural language.||We encourage the observation and comparison with other languages. We show its usefulness. We apply it constantly. Lemke(2011)||We create specific video sequence to support designed to explain the subject and therefore architectural language.
Scripts are made based on the idea of Berman (1988)
|Distrust in his/her power to work and excel. Do not know how to interconnect subjects nor how to study Graphic Expression.||Modify their behaviour from participative strategies, group dynamics and case studies in the classroom.||We generate a model of mentoring which reinforces the positive and explain, with arguments, the evaluation of each work. All this in front of the student.|
|They think that the assessment is subjective||We explain clearly that as alanguage, they have their own rules which are perfectly measurable.||In the workbooks we value them in writing, but they are also explained in person and in the intranet, privately, they can access their progress.
|Think the teacher is an entity foreign to him, which is not involved.||It abandons the concept of masterly lectures, as indicated by Bologna Process, and motivate group dynamics where the teacher is actively involved.||We define tutoring sessions, by appointment. In the 3 sessions made we follow CRM dynamics.(Godin, 1999)|
|They handle very well in web 2.0 environments||We need to know well, like teachers, the philosophy of Web 2.0. To do this we apply what was said by Boschma(2008), Wallace (2001) y Gil Martín(2009)||We developed a dedicated website under the URLwww.ExpresionGrafica.es , from it we also link to various social networks that we use (youtube, facebook, twitter, pinterest)
We use social networks to create a new own network, as indicated Fernández-Coca(2003)
|They want printed material||They are taught to take notes in class.||We encourage them to take written references to library materials and videos that are developed for them.
|They do not know how to check references||They are taught and are encouraged to use them and referencing them.||We provide a forum on the intranet of the UIB with references and summaries of their readings and related Graphic Expression.
|Smart Phones and tablets used in the classroom.||They are allowed to use the web to see the support material of the subject and generated videos.||We are planning to performe a PPP for mobile and interactive visual dictionary of architectural language. Requested as a teaching innovation project in June 2012.|
Table 3. Circumstance, and alternative solution 4.0. Source: the author.
1.3 Strategy 4.0
From all the aspects analyzed, it raises the implementation of blended learning, based on the concept that you learn to draw by drawing, producing different of materials to support teaching materials based on both online and off line. Apart from the 60 hours of F2F teaching of this subject which are the base of the teaching process.
1.3.1 Attendance strategy
The subject is divided into 10 topics. They all have a theoretical working time between one and three hours. You can find these issues, and its development in the web www.ExpresionGrafica.es
We define practices related to these issues. Both: theory and practice are coordinated spatially through a schedule that the student can consult all the time and is also available on the website above.
Group dynamics are set to discuss possible solutions to problems. We start from the points made by Merhi (2010), Tapscott (2009) y Castellá (2011).
188.8.131.52 Assessment from the tutorials
We set a dynamic with three assessments sessions (tutorials) where the student works each issue listed under the schedule and scoring 10%, 20% and 30% sequentially for each tutorial based on the work developed in the 60 hours and a total of 40% out of the 90 hours of the work done by himself / herself..
The student submits his / her work individually and directly with the teacher in the three preset required tutorials. The student can also ask for extra tutoring sessions.
The student receives their assessment in person in the three required tutorials. They mark the rhythm from an early assessment of their successes and further dialogue on how to improve their mistakes. It also establishes the following scores -4 for part of the exercise not submitted, 0 bad, 1 for regular, 2 for good and 3 for achieving the expected. 4 is marked when considering that they have extended the work by their own and 5 when the level is higher than the whole class.
In all the tutorials, the teacher takes notes of the circumstances of the progress of each student, so he builds their personal file, properly protected in terms of the data collected, to help a better follow-up of the progress achieved of each student.
Scores, comments and references to improve their work, are given in writing and privately on the 60 hours workbook, which is described in section 1.3.2 and has a special dedicated space for it.
1.3.2 Off line material
2 workbooks published. One for the 60 F2F hours, DIN-A4 format and rigid, and one for the 90 hours of self- work in A3 format.
They are published as a way to standardize the deliveries and leave well structured and clear where and how they are performing the exercises, following the process, «read, schematize in written the exercise asked, outline it in basic geometric shapes, perform a basic sketch and conclude with the final sketch » how it was taught in the classroom.
They explain these processes and everything related to the understanding of the subject. In the 60 hours is also included a copy of the agenda and timetable.
1.3.3 Online material
The web www.ExpresionGrafica.es is created and hosted at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB). We looked for a template for the user and a readable interface, quick to understand, compatible with existing platforms and operating systems and consume little bandwidth. We use WordPress and MySQL, counting with the help of a a technician. The management of Its intranet, is transparent and easy for the teacher
I use this site to publish openly supporting materials that I make as well as bibliography and different social networks that also support teaching.
The structure of the exercises published on this website is always the same: a video edited for them specifically, a pdf file of the exercise, a brief description of the subject, related materials and links to program and schedule of the subject.
The videos have always followed the same structure: introduction of the subject and reminder of previous videos, if applicable, , header, content development; reminder of the need to attend class since the videos are teaching support, not replacing the class; credits and signature referencing the possibility of use of this material under Creative Commons (Creative Commons Spain).
The decision to publish this material under the Creative Commons, is given by the intention of sharing what has been done with other teachers and students so that they can use it to support their own classroom teaching and that can improve grounds, the re-share and work well under a philosophy of winning and collaborative work for a greater development of our area of expertise.
In the videos released in the year 2011-12 the content is explained by a person, directly speaking, usually the teacher, but also experts. This is a conclusion from the last survey in the previous year, which showed that a material explained by a person who puts voice and face is better understood and learned by students.
During the course 2011-12 10 videos have been published since mid-May 2012 and there were over 70.500 viewings. Most of these come from Spain, followed by Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. 87% were watched through Youtube, a 7.8% from other sites, 3.5% from mobile devices and 1.7% from other platforms. (Source: YouTube statistics May 22, 2012).
These data allow us to know that the intention to open and allow the use of materials generated it is being accomplished.
In addition, these statistics gave extra information to complete data of each video, in order to address them to the web ExpresionGrafica.es and therefore facilitate the use of other materials generated and published as support for teaching and learning Graphic Expression.
Pdf of the statements
All topics covered by the program have their own exercises. In order to avoid any misinterpretation from the students, we establish a base template for these statements, which can be downloaded in Pdf format from the web www.ExpresionGrafica.es . We create visual storytelling allows us to further facilitate the understanding and sense of group communication of our intentions, as contemplated Salmon (2008).
All statements contain the following structure:
At the top, you find the subject data, code, web name, item number and title; QR code specific Web page within the web of the course, where the video and the rest supporting material. With this, we provide them an immediate location of this material.
In the centre, they have a division in columns with the following structure: In the first column we include a brief description of the topic, expertise and type of activity.
In the second column we have pictures to support the current theme, with references to the authors of it, if they are different to the ones generated by me.
In the third one, they find the statement, to be carried out. This statement must be copied, labelling perfectly on the assigned part of the workbook of 60 hours, which promotes the practice and improving signage.
In the fourth column, they find the material they need to work with, the tools allowed and the reached objectives for each topic.
There is the possibility to extend this form of statement to others if the subject requires it.
Our subject includes practical exercises outside the classroom. To anticipate possible misunderstanding, and delays in arriving at the scheduled time, or even unforeseen weather elements, I created a Twitter account associated with www.ExpresionGrafica.es as a bulletin board. In the end, and using the hashtag # egauib, the account was also used to advise of updates to the content of learning support.
Experience in the current course is that few students use this tool, only 15% of the total, and the watch from its insertion into the same site of the subject, which is found in the right side.
We created a Facebook page specific to the subject. They upload pictures of all graphics done by the teacher on the blackboard as support to finish and complete the notes that students have to develop and they are assessed and scored in each tutorial session
Facebook also allows you to upload other news. 80% of students in this course are «followers» of our Facebook profile so the information of our subject is always reachable from the walls of their (the students) own Facebook profiles.
Notes from the students.
These notes taken in classroom, became a measurable category for the subject since I found that the students who took them better, achieved better results at the end of the semester
It was necessary to invest time in personal tutorials to teach them how to take notes in classroom since they arrived with little or no basis of how to do it.
For next year I plan to publish a guide on «how to take notes in Graphic Expression,» seeking to improve these results.
References from Pinterest
Taking references of other people is to learn from other people. Having an online tool such as the social network Pinterest, makes it easier to share with students.
This is the social network last included in the www.ExpresionGrafica.es so by May 2012 is still being completed within the website mentioned.
Open Course Ware is a platform that emerged from the collaboration between the University and Universia
( http://ocw.universia.net/es/ ) and is based in a concept of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), from which free access to knowledge is given through Internet. Since its interface is proper, the material posted on Graphic Expression in OWC removes all references to specific exercises to be performed directly in the UIB.
OWC version of Graphic Expression of the UIB is made public on May 15, 2012. At the time of writing this paper I do not have data on their performance.
1.4 Results in the academic year 2010-11 and 2011-12
After two courses implementing this system, especially in the latter, and using the results of surveys conducted at the end of both courses, you can set the following SWOT analysis of the current situation.
|Internal analysis||Learning process has been facilitated.
Learn to study Graphic Expression.
Learn to link all the concepts of subject.
Get familiar with the architectural language.
Learn to draw in 60 hours of instruction and 90 hours of self work. They learned how to work together.
Strengthening their sense of responsibility.
|They need the follow-up of the teacher in order to avoid drop-outs and all means a decrease in the level when using holiday periods, and this semester is Holy Week and Easter.|
|External analysis||Knowledge of Web 2.0.
Strengthening two-way communication (participatory, although in the individual level).
Control of the dispersion in the learning.
|Risk of losing practice if not maintain the studying habit.|
Table 4. SWOT analysis summary the results of the students after two courses. Source: the author.
|Internal analysis||Experience increased.
Increased knowledge of Web 2.0.
Development of the proposed strategy with great potential for further improvements.
|Possibility of exhaustion.
|External analysis||Bologna Process.
To share teaching materials with colleagues.
Dynamism in teaching.
Table 5. Summary SWOT analysis of the results of the teacher after two courses. Source: the author.
1.5 Future Plans
Throughout the 4.0 TEACHING strategy students are also taught to see possible solutions to bad circumstances and how to be more resourceful, they also learn that everything is a step towards something else. They are taught to think and act globally as well in the architectural design that is explained in Graphic Expression.
From these parameters, the teacher has to apply the same rule.
Therefore, and based on the experiences of these last two years, it raises the following suggestions for improvement and progress to be implemented at the end of next year, 2012-2013, at the latest.
1. Generate new support videos.
2. Improve the content of the book workbooks for 60 contact hours and 90 self work, including more examples of expected results and self-correcting files, based on the model of the University of Zaragoza (Augustine and others, 2011) and Polytechnic University of Valencia (López González and García Valldecabres, 1999), without ruling out other models from other universities.
3. Making an application for smart phones and tablets, an app, iphone and android compatible with an interactive application that facilitates learning and use of architectural language applied to graphic expression.
4. Publish a teaching manual with all the strategy, scheduled day by day of the TEACHING 4.0 work that also serves as a workbook of Graphic Expression in Construction.
TEACHING 4.0 is another way to teach. It’s a step forward of what is usually done, a step that makes the student’s learning rhythm faster and more effective. With it, I achieved a greater motivation of the students, who, in the last year, 25% of them have submitted extra work, duly controlled by the teacher, that have allowed them to obtain better academic results.
This system employs new technologies without abandoning the previous ones. Therefore, being aware the author of this paper of the difficulty added to the production of specific video materials, this system offers the entire area of Graphic Expression and all this material under the Creative Commons license.
It is also a growth strategy. The four proposals for improvement and progress are developed taking into account to be finished next year. These are only some of which will be developed from the teaching innovation involving TEACHING 4.0.
Students have completed the last two years with an increase in terms of improvement over previous years and from their starting point in the last two years, where we had 90% of students beginning the course of no drawing base, to a 75% of approved students in the three assessments- 7% of drop-out rate and 8% that do not reach the minimum accepted level. They are also more effective when considering solutions to unforeseen problems. Not forgetting that they learn to interconnect the various fields of Graphic Expression degree and meet the expectations from the proposed competence.
As a teacher this system leads to increased motivation, it allows to apply for teaching innovation projects and keeps us updated in the dynamics of social movement in which students move and from which we can introduce more elements of motivation at work and study Graphic Expression.
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